Elizabeth Barrette (ysabetwordsmith) wrote,
Elizabeth Barrette

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Poem: "Tada Gan Iarracht"

This poem is spillover from the June 2, 2020 Poetry Fishbowl. It was inspired by prompts from [personal profile] ari_the_dodecahedron and [personal profile] wyld_dandelyon. It also fills the "Protect" square in my 6-1-20 card for the Cottoncandy Bingo fest. This poem has been sponsored by Anthony & Shirley Barrette. It belongs to the Finn Family thread of the Polychrome Heroics series.

"Tada Gan Iarracht"

[Tuesday, September 2, 2014]

When Joshua brought his kids
over to play, Pips came along,
and Graham took the opportunity
to invite Pips into his office.

"Your T-shirt seems quite apt,"
Graham said. It was pale gray
with dark blue ink showing
a Swiss army knife above
the words, I got this.

"How so?" Pips asked
as he took a seat.

"Several people have
asked me recently about
language preservation, some
for tribal ones and others for
Arabic among Syrian refugees
up in Vermont," said Graham.

"It's a challenge," Pips said.
"What's it got to do with me?"

"I've heard you and Walden
speaking a heritage language,"
Graham said. "I wondered if you
might have a different perspective
than Irish has given me. It's all
about worldview, after all."

"Well, that and being able
to speak privately in public,
which is how Walden uses it,"
Pips said, shaking his head.

"Applicable to the tribal ones
but not the Arabic," said Graham.
"Apparently the American neighbors
are interested in learning that one."

"Interesting," said Pips. "So
basically, we're brainstorming
ideas to help people keep
their heritage language, and
hope we think of different stuff
than what they already have?"

"Not just solutions, but ways
to apply them," Graham said.

Pips rummaged in the basket
of metal fidgets that Tolli had sent,
choosing the hoop-and-chain.
"Sure, I'm in," he agreed.

"Thank you," Graham said
as he picked up the spinner ball.
"First, we have different traditions
of cultural revolution. My mother
left Ireland to get me and Tolli
away from the Troubles there."

"My people are more like
the Cherokee," said Pips.
"We hide in plain sight or
we stay out of sight. We
might invite the enemies
of our enemies to come
throw a war, but we rarely
get into battles ourselves."

"Understandable," said Graham.
"That cultural background influences
how people interact with the world
at large. Thought and language
influence each other, so we
need to consider those too."

"Can we do that when you
speak Irish, I speak Pictish,
and the people we hope
to help speak something
totally different?" said Pips.

"We can at least think
about it," Graham said.

"Okay, then I'm throwing in
the issue of colonialism,"
said Pips. "Both our peoples
dealt with waves of invaders.
So did Native Americans and
everyone in what is now Syria."

"People generally seem
to prefer self-determination
to colonialism," Graham said.
"Learning a heritage language
supports decolonization. It's
different with refugees, though."

"Their survival depends on
learning the local language,"
Pips said. "Some want to
but others really don't."

"Losing the language
may be the last thing that
they had left from home,"
Graham pointed out.
"That's devastating."

"So how is that going
with the people who
asked you?" Pips said.

"Rutledge is actually doing
a great job," Graham said.
"It helps that some Syrians
also speak French."

Pips chuckled, flicking
the chain in its loop. "Yeah,
Francophones are friendly.
Just look at Cinq Francs."

"It's a good plan," Graham said.
"Any language that can attach
to a business gets extra support.
Mapuche is the runaway winner
in that whole arena, though."

"No argument there," Pips said.

Mapuche Mail had turned
the tribal language in Araucanía
into a global language simply by
offering customers a discount
based on how well they spoke it.

"So there's one idea: use business
as a language vehicle," said Graham.

"Not much help for most languages,"
Pips said. "It depends on speakers,
and not everyone can be Mapuche."

"True, but the Syrians are well placed
to attract other refugees, or even tourists,"
said Graham. "Arabic is enormous.
Hmm, intertribal tourism might help
the indigenous languages, too."

He made a note about using
businesses to support language.

"Looping back to colonialism,
I can think of one thing that unites
most disadvantaged languages, and
that's people trying to kill them off,"
Pips said. "Get people to protest
that as an assault on human rights."

"It's a crime against humanity, too,"
Graham said. "Everyone loses out
when a language dies, because
that cuts the total examples which
the scholars have to work with."

"Any ideas on fixing it?" Pips said.

"Teach peacemaking skills,"
Graham said instantly. "That
also helps reduce conflict,
a major driver of refugees."

"Add environmental action,
then, because otherwise we'll
see more climate refugees
in the future," Pips said.

Graham wrote those down
under activities that refugees
might pursue in their new home.

Some tribes, of course, already
had their own programs for
sustainable development,
such as alternative building.

The Seneca-Cayuga nation had
famously taken over what used to be
an oil company and now used that as
a sideline for sustainable energy.

Ros. Ingersoll, who spoke
Cayuga among her languages,
had mentioned that case
as a positive example.

"Noted," Graham said.
"I'll also encourage people
to exchange languages
between refugees and hosts.
Rutledge is already on that."

"Some tribal languages have camps
or classes or open to everyone,
not just members," Pips said.

"Good idea," Graham said.
"What about classism? That
can pose a serious threat."

"Yeah, nobody wants to use
a language that gets them
in trouble," Pips said. "So,
promote multilingualism as
a sign of competence -- we
already do a lot of that."

"Teach multiculturalism
and tolerance," Graham said.
"Write about those subjects
in heritage languages, "

"Pull in teachers," said Pips.
"This supports their work, and
it's hard to argue that a language
is worthless if it's taught in college."

"There's another job opportunity,"
Graham said. "Private schools
don't have the same requirements
as public ones, and anyone
can give home lessons."

Pips nodded. "Anything
job-related should help, and
school classes improve
the chance of survival."

"What about passing
the language to the young?"
Graham asked. "The Gaeltacht
proved that school is no guarantee
of protection over the long run."

"Ah, well ... we have the clanchildren,"
Pips said. "Each person owes the clan
a child of their body. Of course some can't
and some won't, but most do. Those who
don't want to raise a child simply hand them
over to someone who does. Most folks
who claim a clanchild are quite avid about
traditions, so they speak Pictish at home."

"That makes sense," said Graham. "It's not
a very portable custom per se, but it resembles
a language nest -- which can be a school, but
is often just a grandparent's house where
children listen to their language."

"Yeah, we have those too,
oak-houses," Pips agreed.
"Children are like little seeds
in the shadow of a great tree."

"So, something similar might work
for Arabic and French," said Graham.
"As long as that's a private activity,
no regulations apply, so anyone could
host one. It's good work, especially for
older or disabled people who don't
have professional credentials here."

"It should work," Pips said. "It's
working for tribal languages."

"So what can we do about
children not wanting to use
a language?" Graham said.

"You have to keep it relevant,
current," said Pips. "In Pictish,
we create new songs and stories
all the time. Not everyone is
any good at it, but we're all
expected to try, so that we
can figure out who is good."

"That's doable," said Graham.
"Blogging, videos -- there are
Irish exercises on V'you."

"Make sure they cover both
current events and topics
particular to the culture,"
said Pips. "Translate
things back and forth, too."

"Recreate new words in
the heritage language rather
than borrow them," Graham said,
taking notes as fast as he could.

"Kids are great at that, especially
if they learn the bits that click together
like Legos to make words," said Pips.

Graham laughed. "My kids always seem
to go through a phase where they make
Irish versions of all the products in stores."

"Yeah, I did that in Pictish," Pips admitted.
"I had a lot of fun with it, for years."

"I myself got into word-cracking,"
Graham said. He picked up one of
the looped chains and folded it back
on itself. "I got to where I could stack
quite a few layers together, and Tolli
quit playing me once I always won --
a peculiarly Irish game. What
about your experiences?"

"Well, one thing we do
that most people don't is
language contrasts," Pips said.
"Study the languages of the people
around you and compare those to
your own to see what's different.
It makes you think about what
makes your language special
and why you should keep it."

"Oh, now I want to do that,"
Graham said, making a note.

"Then once you've studied
several different languages,
you can compare them with
each other, too," said Pips. "It's
more fun when you know some
from separate language families."

"English, Irish, and Esperanto,"
said Graham. "It should work."
"All right, this should be enough
for me to sent to Ros. Ingersoll --
she's a teacher of heritage languages
who agreed to help us compile and
distribute all the contributed ideas.
I think we can make some waves."

"Yeah, language can shake things up,"
said Pips. "That's why invaders
try to stomp out the local ones."

"And yet here we are, brainstorming
ways to keep heritage languages
alive and kicking," Graham said.

Pips twirled the hoop-and-chain
lazily around his finger. "I love
subversion," he drawled. "It's
one of my favorite hobbies."

"Something we share in common
regardless of our hat colors,"
Graham said, smiling.

"True," said Pips.
"This is going to be
a lot of work, though."

"Tada gan iarracht,"
Graham said serenely.
Nothing without effort.

* * *


Krishen Ingersoll -- She has fair skin, brown eyes, and chestnut hair with just a little wave that falls to her chest. She wears glasses. She is 36 years old. She speaks Alnombak (Abenaki), Arabic, Cayuga, English, Esperanto, French, Latin, Mandarin Chinese, Mapuche, Plains Indian Sign, Russian, Sanskrit, and Seneca. Krishen earned a bachelor's degree in Heritage Languages with a minor in Linguistics from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. She went on to get a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing with a graduate minor in American Indian and Indigenous Studies. Finally she earned a Ph.D. in Linguistics with a graduate minor in Cognitive Science. Krishen enjoys birdwatching, especially while traveling, and she raises Cayuga ducks. She likes to travel; that and her love of languages have made her cosmopolitan. Her compelling voice and easy rapport make her effective as a teacher.
Qualities: Master (+6) Languages, Expert (+2) Cosmopolitan, Expert (+2) Teacher, Good (+2) Birdwatching, Good (+2) Compelling Voice, Good (+2) Rapport
Poor (-2) Needs Glasses

Tribal languages of New York include Alnombak (Abenaki), Cayuga, and Seneca.

Cornell offers classes in languages ranging from Akkadian to Zulu.

Heritage Languages Major
T-America most often offers this major through the department of Languages, Linguistics, or Ethnic Studies depending on which of those has the most relevant staff and classes. The idea is to give students a chance to develop their heritage language(s) and study some others that are actively promoted. Most students start out knowing at least one or two of these target languages, and if they can pass the proficiency test, they can either replace that slot with a new language or take more advanced classes in a current one. Summer sessions and study abroad can also fill requirements. In addition to language-learning classes, the major covers how languages work, the rise and fall of languages, revitalization projects, and cultural aspects of language. The size of the program depends on how many languages the school offers, how high the instruction goes for each, and what other demands are placed on a student's choice of courses. The Heritage Languages major is extremely useful in ethnic outreach, politics, business, diplomacy, travel planning, and many other careers.
Along similar lines, some schools offer a degree in Musical Languages, Rare Languages, or World Languages, where students also study a whole handful of languages but the focus and thus some of the supporting classes are different.
Typical core classes include:
Introduction to Heritage Languages
Introduction to Linguistics
History of Languages and Linguistics
Basic Translation Skills
Issues in Translation
Language Revitalization

LING 4428 - Connectionist Psycholinguistics
Crosslist as: PSYCH 4280, COGST 4280, PSYCH 6280, LING 6628
3CR Graded 8174LEC001
T 01:25PM - 04:00PM URH 205 Christiansen,M (mhc27

Colonialism and Languages

Each student must master their heritage language, although they can choose to develop more than one if they have diverse background. (English does not count, except for foreign students who grew up speaking something else.) That means native fluency, near-native fluency, or four years of college classes. Students already fluent may take classes in translation, writing, literature, research, or other advanced topics.

FREN 3220 - Readings in Early Modern Literature and Culture
4CR Stdnt Opt 8789 SEM101
TR 02:55PM - 04:10PM URH 254Greenberg,M (mdg17)
Prerequisite: French 2210, 3010, or 3050, or CASE Q++.

FREN 4350 - Postcolonial Poetry and the Poetics of Relation
Crosslist as: COML 4290, ENGL 4840, SPAN 4350
Co-meeting with: COML 6350, ENGL 6850, FREN 6350, SPAN 6350
4CR Stdnt Opt 11306SEM101
W12:20PM - 02:15PMOLL 303Monroe,J (jbm3)

FREN 4470 - Old French:Theory&Practice
4CR Stdnt Opt 7691 SEM100
MW 07:30PM - 08:45PM GSH 144Howie,C (csh34)
Prerequisite: French 2210, 3010, or 3050, or CASE Q++, or permission of instructor. Some knowledge of modern French.

FREN 4500 - Rehearsing the Enlightenment in France
Co-meeting with: FREN 6500
4CR Graded 11212LEC001
W 02:20PM - 04:25PM WHT B04Vallois,M (mv46)
Prerequisite: French 2210, 3010 or 3050, or CASE Q++, or permission of instructor.

Next, they choose one language native to the Americas, in honor of the land's heritage. The original offerings were Apache, Cherokee, Lakota, Navajo, and Yupik plus Plains Indian Sign; later Mapuche was added from South America due to its vigorous promotion and financial reward program. This language requires at least two years of classes.

AIIS 2240 - Native American Languages
(crosslisted) LING 2248 (CA-AG, SBA-AG)
Spring. 3 credits. Student option grading.
Co-meets with AIIS 6240/LING 6248. S. Murray.
For description, see LING 2248.

AIIS 3324 - Cayuga Language and Culture (crosslisted)
AIIS 3325 - Cayuga Language and Culture (crosslisted)

Plains Indian Sign (T-American)

They add two more from the set of heritage languages in active revitalization such as Ainu, Cornish, Diyari, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Irish, Latin, Livonian, Leonese, Manx, Māori, Sanskrit, and Welsh. These typically get one year of college classes, but not all schools offer that much, so sometimes it's less.

LATIN 1201 - Elementary Latin I
4CR Graded 5546SEM102
MTRF 11:15AM - 12:05PM GSH 122Sweet,A (aws34)

LATIN 1202 - Elementary Latin II
4CR Graded 2754SEM101
MTRF 09:05AM - 09:55AM LNC 117 Sears,M (mas296

SANSK 1131 - Elementary Sanskrit I
Crosslist as: CLASS 1331, LING 1131
4CR Graded 1731SEM101
MTRF11:15AM - 12:05PMGSH 144Nussbaum,A (ajn8)

SANSK 1132 - Elementary Sanskrit II
Crosslist as: CLASS 1332, LING 1132
4CR Graded Instructor Consent Required 2723LEC001
MTRF10:10AM - 11:00AMGSH 122Ruppel,A (ar366)
Pre-requisite: SANSK 1131

Some programs also offer other heritage languages. Typically one semester is sufficient, but some schools offer more. These may be electives or they may be subsituted for other slots if this language would better suit the student's planned future.
Additional options often include auxiliary languages and alternative communication modes, either as another required category or as an elective. The most common options here include American Sign Language, Augmentative and Alternative Communication, Braille, Esperanto, Silbo Gomero, and Talking Drum. These can also be classified as a student's primary heritage language if there is a family connection.

Some programs allow students to customize a set of languages based on where they plan to work or live, even if that violates some of the major parameters. For instance, a student bound for Arizona might take Apache, Hopi, Navajo, and Zuni plus Plains Indian Sign.

Linguistics Minor
at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Minor Requirements:
The minor in linguistics gives students the opportunity to gain formal recognition for substantial coursework in linguistics without the burden of an additional major. The linguistics minor may be a valuable complement to studies in English, foreign languages, psychology, philosophy, computer science, biology, human development, or engineering and is open to undergraduates across Cornell.
Five courses in linguistics or courses approved for the linguistics major.
Minimum of 18 credits, including:
o LING 1101 - Introduction to Linguistics
o At least one other Foundation course:
o LING 3302 - Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology
o LING 3303 - Introduction to Syntax and Semantics
o LING 3314 - Introduction to Historical Linguistics
o Three additional linguistics courses (of 3 credits or more) meeting the following conditions:
o At least 1 of these must be at the 3000 level or above
o No more than 1 of these may be at the 1000 level
LING 3390 Independent Study in Linguistics
Krishen studied the linguistics of French.

Additional Information:
Some substitutions to these standard requirements are possible by petition to your advisor and with approval by the director of undergraduate studies. All courses counted for the minor must be taken for a letter grade. The minimum grade for courses applied to the linguistics minor is C-.
Any course with a LING prefix except for First-Year Writing Seminars and Language courses counts as a linguistics course. Courses in other departments with a significant linguistic content will be considered by petition.

Creative Writing M.F.A. (Ithaca)
at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Field of Study
English Language and Literature
Program Description
The M.F.A. Program.
The Creative Writing program in the department of English Language and Literature offers an M.F.A. degree only, with concentrations in either poetry or fiction. Each year the department enrolls only eight students, four in each concentration. Our small size allows us to offer a generous financial support package, details of which are outlined on our department website. At the same time, we have a large and diverse graduate faculty with competence in a wide range of literary, theoretical, and cultural fields.
Students participate in a graduate writing workshop each semester and take 6 additional one-semester courses for credit, at least four of them in English or American literature, Comparative Literature, literature in the modern or classical languages, or cultural studies (typically two per semester during the first year and one per semester during the second year). First year students receive practical training by working as Editorial Assistants for Epoch, a periodical of prose and poetry published by the Creative Writing staff of the department. The most significant requirement of the M.F.A. degree is the completion of a book-length manuscript: a collection of poems, short stories, or a novel.

Krishen's project was a collection of short stories, each in English and another language, titled Awë:iyo’s, Beautiful Flowers, Belles fleurs.

beautiful flower. awë:iyo:h beautiful flower.
awë:iyo’s beautiful flowers. (*-ëhiyo-)

beautiful flowers belles fleurs

ENGL 7801 - M.F.A. Seminar: Fiction
5CR Stdnt Opt Department Consent Required 5648 SEM100
T 03:35PM - 05:30PM RCK 187 Viramontes,H (hmv2)

ENGL 3110 - Old English
Co-meeting with: ENGL 6110
4CR Stdnt Opt Department Consent Required 6283 SEM100
MWF 10:10AM - 11:00AM GSH G24Hill,T (tdh1)

ENGL 6450 - England and Empire
4CR Stdnt Opt Department Consent Required 9017SEM101
R 01:25PM - 03:20PM OLL 603 Sawyer,P (pls12)

ENGL 6741 - Collaboration in Modernist Literature and Culture
4CR Stdnt OptDepartment Consent Required 12539 SEM101
R 01:25PM - 03:20PM GSH 156 Braddock,J (jb358)

AIIS 2600 Introduction to Native American Literature
The production of North American Indigenous literatures began long before European colonization, and persists in a variety of printed, sung, carved, painted, written, spoken, and digital media. From oral ... view course details
Regular Academic Session. Combined with: AMST 2600, ENGL 2600
3 Credits Stdnt Opt 3145 SEM 101
TR 10:10am - 11:25am Cheyfitz, E

FREN 6470 - Theatricality of Gender, Philosophy and French Literature
Crosslist as: FGSS 6470
4CR Stdnt Opt 24856 LEC001
M 02:30PM - 04:25PM MCG 145 Vallois,M (mv46)

French Fiction Writing (T-American)

The Special Committee. Every student selects a Special Committee who will be responsible for providing the student with a great deal of individual attention. The University system of Special Committees allows students to design their own courses of study within a broad framework laid down by the department, and it encourages a close working relationship between professors and students, promoting freedom and flexibility in the pursuit of the graduate degree. The student's Special Committee guides and supervises all academic work and assesses progress through a series of meetings with the student.
Teaching. Teaching is considered an integral part of training for the profession. The Field requires a carefully supervised teaching experience as part of the training for the degree. The Department of English, in conjunction with the John S. Knight Institute for Writing in the Disciplines, offers excellent training for beginning teachers and varied and interesting teaching within the university-wide First-Year Writing Program. Graduate students are assigned to writing courses under such general rubrics as "Portraits of the Self," "American Literature and Culture," "The Mystery in the Story," "Shakespeare," and "Cultural Studies," among others. Serving as a Teaching Assistant for a lecture course taught by a member of the Department of English faculty is another way graduate students participate in the teaching of undergraduates.

American Indian and Indigenous Studies Graduate Minor
at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Field Description
The American Indian Program offers American Indian Studies as a minor field in graduate studies. Graduate students select a faculty member from the field of American Indian Studies to serve as minor member on their special committee.
They must also take two courses to qualify for the minor: a one-credit colloquium offered once a year in which students and faculty present their research; and a three-credit course in critical approaches to American Indian Studies, also offered once a year. Faculty expertise spans multiple fields, including anthropology, archeology, art history, history, literature, law, sociology, horticulture, and natural resources, enabling students to develop programs that address their specific interests. Faculty with specific research expertise in Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) studies and indigenous issues globally within diverse disciplines further broaden opportunities for study.
Application for admission is made only to the major fields. After matriculation, a student may select minor subjects from the major or minor fields.

AIIS 6010 American Indian and Indigenous Studies Speaker Series
Graduate-level course that introduces students to ongoing research in the field of American Indian Studies in a proseminar/colloquium format. Advanced graduate students are expected to present their work ... view course details
Enrollment InformationSyllabi: 1 available
Regular Academic Session. 1 Credit Stdnt Opt 3148SEM 101
F11:15am - 1:10pm Caldwell Hall 400 Richardson, T

AIIS 6000 Critical Approaches to American Indian and Indigenous Studies: Intellectual History
An interdisciplinary survey of the literature in Native American Studies. Readings engage themes of indigeneity, coloniality, power, and "resistance." The syllabus is formed from some "classic" and canonical ... view course details
Enrollment InformationSyllabi: 1 available
Regular Academic Session. Combined with: AIIS 4000
4 Credits Stdnt Opt 3994 LEC 001
W1:25pm - 4:25pm Caldwell Hall 400 Richardson, T

Ph.D in Linguistics
at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Course Requirements
A. Core Courses
To assure that Ph.D. students receive an adequate grounding in all of the fundamental areas of linguistics, the field has defined a set of core requirements in the areas of Syntax, Phonology, Semantics and Historical Linguistics. The general expectation is that all students will take all core courses. If a student requests an exemption on the basis of comparable graduate-level coursework at another institution, this exemption can only be granted after consultation with the Director of Graduate Studies and the instructor of the relevant course. Beyond the core courses, Ph.D. students are expected to attend advanced linguistics courses (topics courses and seminars) not only in the areas in which they write their research papers and thesis but in areas that will provide sufficient breadth as advised by the Special Committee.

Students are required to complete courses equivalent to the following:

Historical Linguistics (LING 6314)
Phonology I and II (LING 6401/6402)
Syntax I and II (LING 6403/6404)
Semantics I (LING 6421)

Research Workshops (LING 6603/6604): This course provides students with an opportunity to develop an original research paper through a number of revisions, some of which are presented to an audience of fellow students. The final version is presented at a semester-end conference. Offered both fall and spring.

At least one course from the following subfields: computational linguistics, historical linguistics (beyond Ling 6314), morphology, phonetics, semantics and pragmatics.

LING 6456 Archaic Latin
A close reading of selected Plautine comedies with special attention to language and meter. view course details
Enrollment InformationSyllabi: none Regular Academic Session.
Combined with: LATIN 4456, LATIN 7456, LING 4456
4 Credits Stdnt Opt 16218 LEC 001
M 7:30pm - 9:25pm Goldwin Smith Hall 122 Nussbaum, A

LING 6635 Indo-European Workshop
An assortment of subjects intended for students with previous training in Indo-European linguistics: problems in the reconstruction of Proto Indo-European, topics in the historical grammars of the various ... view course details
Enrollment InformationSyllabi: none Regular Academic Session.
4 Credits Stdnt Opt 9927SEM 101
T 4:30pm - 7:25pm Morrill Hall 226F Weiss, M

LING 6692 Phonetic Data Analysis Workshop
The phonetics data analysis workshop provides students with practice in analysis and visualization of phonetic data, using Matlab, R, and Praat. Experiment design and statistical methods are ... view course details
Enrollment InformationSyllabi: none Regular Academic Session.
1 Credit S/U NoAud 17589 SEM 101
W 12:20pm - 1:10pm Tilsen, S

Advanced courses: all students are required to take at least four (4) seminars or topics courses for credit. These are courses at the 6600-level or higher.

B. Ancillary skill sets
In the course of research a student may need to master one or more ancillary skill sets. These might be familiarity with languages of scholarship or training in statistics, logic, field methods or programming. The student, in consultation with his/her committee, is expected to determine which skills need to be acquired and how and when this should be done.

Recently Offered Seminars:
The department of linguistics offers a wide variety of graduate-level seminars. Seminar topics vary each semester based on the research interests of the graduate students and faculty.
o Neuro-linguistics
o Sanskrit Historical Grammar
Phonology and Phonetics
o Phonetics in the Lexicon
o Information Structure
o Aspect of Interface between Syntax and Morpho-Phonology

Graduate Minor in Cognitive Science
at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York

Field Description
Cognitive science focuses on the nature and representation of knowledge. Among the many topics examined are logic and the justification of belief; the nature of mind and action; knowledge representation; knowledge acquisition; the knowledge, use, and acquisition of language; perception; concepts and conceptual change; artificial intelligence and parallel distributed processing; and the neurobiology of cognition.

The cognitive science minor is open to students who have elected a major field in which the minor can be appropriately included. Field members offer guidance to students in setting up and carrying out an integrated program of interdisciplinary study in conjunction with their major field. Major fields include (but are not limited to) computer science, human development, information science, linguistics, management, mathematics, neurobiology and behavior, philosophy, and psychology.

All cognitive science graduate minor students must take at least two 6,000-level courses: some 4,000-level courses will be allowed with the approval of your minor committee member. One course should be taught outside your discipline (in another cognitive science affiliated department); the other is the required COGST 6101: Cognitive Science Proseminar (spring). This course surveys the study of how the mind/brain works, drawing primarily from six disciplines: philosophy, psychology, developmental science, neuroscience, linguistics, and computer science. Although at least two courses are required, we encourage you to take more courses offered by the program.
Please email the program manager (cogst@cornell.edu) with your course choices for approval.
The field sponsors a series of lectures and colloquia by internationally recognized scholars. Students are encouraged to meet with the speakers for informal discussion during their visits.
Each spring the program hosts Sprocket, the Cognitive Science Film Series in conjunction with COGST 1101. The evening, complete with pizza and conversation, is free and open to the Cornell community.
Travel funding for conferences and workshops is available to minor students.
The Annual Grad Convo/Info Blitz lunch is held each May in order for students to share their research with peers and faculty.
This is a minor field. Application for admission is made only to the major fields. After matriculation, a student may select minor subjects from the major or minor fields.

COGST 4270 Evolution of Language
Seminar surveying a cross-section of modern theories, methods, and research pertaining to the origin and evolution of language. Considers evidence from psychology, the cognitive neurosciences, comparative ... view course details
Enrollment InformationSyllabi: none
Regular Academic Session. Combined with: PSYCH 4270, PSYCH 6270
3 Credits Stdnt Opt 16626SEM 101
T1:25pm - 4:25pm Uris Hall 205 Christiansen, M

COGST 6020 Research in Risk and Rational Decision Making
This hands-on laboratory course will develop research skills in the context of risk and rational decision making in human development from multiple disciplinary perspectives and with respect to different ... view course details
Enrollment InformationSyllabi: none
Regular Academic Session. Combined with: HD 6020
3 Credits Stdnt Opt 8503 SEM 101
M 2:00pm - 4:25pm Reyna, V

See the Swiss army knife T-shirt that Pips wears.

Tada gan iarracht.

Metal Fidgets
TYPE 1: Jumbo Chain
TYPE 2: Medium Chain
TYPE 3: Spinner Ball
TYPE 4: Hoop & Chain

Language preservation involves efforts to save languages from extinction.

In addition to common problems and suggested solutions, I add:

Solutions for language no longer learned by children -->
* Create educational materials. Ideally, write whole books. If that's unfeasible, make simpler materials. Many online resources exist that allow you to cut-and-paste content to make flashcards, worksheets, quizzes, and so forth.
* Teach the language to children.
* Vigorously protest attacks on disadvantaged languages as an assault on human rights and a crime against humanity.
* Ensure that the language has both a unique writing system (because applying some other system tends to make a mess, as it rarely covers all the necessary sounds) and one in the Latin alphabet (the system in widest use and with the most premade equipment such as keyboards). The unique one should be easy to write and read both by hand and by machine.
** Create supporting tools (keyboards, printing presses, craft stamps, etc.) for the unique writing system. Ideally, put the most-used symbols in the keyboard locations easiest to reach.

Solutions for migratory language loss -->
* Use peacemaking skills and environmental activism to reduce drivers of migration.
** Create materials for these subjects in heritage languages.
* Hosts and refugees can exchange language learning, such that each locale develops a unique combination of languages based on the roots of its residents. (This is exactly what parts of Vermont have done with English and French.)

Solutions for classism -->
* Teach tolerance and multiculturalism to minimize discrimination.
** Create materials for these subjects in heritage languages.
* Promote multilingual skills as a valued sign of intellectual and cultural competence, thus raising the status of polyglots.

Solutions for dwindling relevance -->
* Maintain libraries and other archives of extant cultural material for speakers to enjoy.
* Create new poetry, fiction, nonfiction, plays, songs, and other cultural material. Songs are especially helpful because people don't need to know the language in order to enjoy it, thus creating a wider market. Much the same is true of calligraphy. A newspaper and television news channel are extremely useful for connecting with current events. Ideally, these materials should include both interests particular to the culture and wider issues.
** This creates a modest but meaningful market for jobs: writers and storytellers, lyricists and singers, playwrights and actors, illustrators, teachers, philosophers, translators, linguists, historians, journalists, and other creative people. Because there is much less competition in a small field, it is easier to sell things and the market is well connected: language teachers, language learners, libraries, cultural centers, etc.
** Encourage language preservation and linguistics as good jobs for people with disabilities.
* Translate some of the cultural material into world languages so more people can discover it; this may encourage them to learn the language to get more. Leave some untranslated as a reward for those who do.
* Translate popular content into the heritage languages. The Bible and Shakespeare's plays are among the most popular, but choose materials of interest to native speakers.
** Half-and-half books are especially useful for both types of translation.
* Create new terms in the heritage language using its own roots and tools for new products or concepts, instead of simply borrowing them from a mainstream language. A specific brand name may be borrowed, but the generic term should be recreated. Vital point: because some languages are better at some things, a particularly clever recreation may occasionally overtake the original and become the norm for mainstream speakers.
* New companies, products, etc. created by speakers should be named in the heritage language. Company documents may be bilingual. (The runaway success in Terramagne is Mapuche Mail, which has turned Mapuche into a global language by the simple expedient of granting discounts to users who speak it, based on skill level.)
* Study the heritage language for its unique worldview. Write scholarly papers "about it, in it" that explore the connotations of words or grammatical features. The treasure of heritage languages belongs to those who preserve them.

Solutions for lack of use -->
* Promote heritage languages as a fun and valuable hobby. Encourage playgroups for children and clubs for older speakers where they can practice their language.
* Offer cultural events such as movies, storytelling, theatrical performances, busking, and cultural fairs where people can hear the language.
* Use the internet to connect far-flung speakers. This is especially useful for keeping refugees in touch with their culture. Just having a heritage blog network and at least one multiuser game platform can help tremendously. These also offer opportunities to promote the culture, not just the language.

Solutions for internalized oppression -->
* Offer culturally sensitive counseling to native speakers who may have been traumatized in ways that led them to hate, fear, or feel ashamed of their heritage language.
* Associate the heritage language with high status and other valuables.
* Paying native speakers for their time working with the heritage language can directly redress impoverishment as a tool of language destruction.
* Choose materials featuring the great historic or mythic heroes of the culture to encourage a sense of pride.

Solutions for elderly native speakers -->
* Older speakers who are still active are ideal for interacting with grandchildren and/or other youth. They are a mainstay of many language nests and similar programs.
* Elders who are more frail may do better working with adult researchers to record and preserve as much of their language as possible. These materials may then be used to teach the language to younger people.
* If possible, record older speakers talking with each other to preserve the conversational style of the heritage language.
* Because many old people are poor and their time is precious, they should be generously compensated either in cash or barter for their efforts in language preservation. This not only rewards them for their hard work, it enables them to devote more energy to the project because they don't have to scrabble for resources, and it improves their life. Ask them what they want the future to hold and incorporate that as much as possible.
* Any profits from recordings or other materials should be returned to the source culture, not exported to benefit outsiders.

Rosetta, Roset, Ros. (pronounced "Rose")
a Terramagne title for a languages professor or speaker of many languages

Preserving languages may be done in many ways.

A language nest is a way of teaching children to speak a heritage language. Here is an online toolkit. See examples in Ojibwe and Cree.

Wikitongues is a project to preserve languages. Watch some videos of various languages., including the Happy New Year video. Imagine belonging to a club with all those fascinating people. Think about how much exposure you'd get to the world -- their different faces, body language, clothes, even the plants and animals around them. Their Language Sustainability Toolkit is available in multiple formats.

Gaeltacht (/ˈɡeɪltəxt/ GAYL-təkht, Irish: [ˈɡeːl̪ˠt̪ˠəxt̪ˠ]; plural Gaeltachtaí) refers to a region that primarily speaks Irish.

Pictish remnants include place names beginning Pit-, which seems to mean ‘piece of land, farm’.

The shadow of the body was considered an important and integral part of an individual and its name, according to Egyptologists, was the ‘shut’.
This word ‘shut’ obviously has links to all similar sounding words of IndoEuropean and Aryan origin that have connotations with the shadow or spirit of the dead. The list seems endless. In English we have ‘shade’. In the Celtic languages we have Welsh ‘ysgod’, Gaelic ‘sgath’ and Cornish ‘scod’.
Could our word ‘Scota’ have developed, perhaps via Greek, from a
metamorphosed form of the Egyptian word ‘Shut’, the ‘spiritual shadow’ of a
There is another hieroglyph that the Egyptians made use of to convey the S or SH sound. It is a long, horizontal rectangular shape and was, apparently, the
plan view of an artificial basin. We saw above that stone basins were important
to the people who installed them in the chambered cairns at Knowth and
Newgrange, though we know not why. The significance will not be lost on the
reader however, that the S, or SH sounds, were identified to the ancient
Egyptians by the hieroglyphs for both a sunshade and a basin.

From this, consider a possible (late, influenced by Indo-European) Pictish word root for "shadow" as -(e)sh*t. As a suffix, it could be -esht, yielding Pitesht as "Pictish territory" or literally "Shadowland." As a noun, the leading consonant becomes more gutteral: schot. (One possible explanation for the difficulty of pinning down Pictish is that the few surviving fragments represent a pidgin or creole, a pre-Indo-European language with Indo-European additives. So in Terramagne, everyday Pictish has Indo-European influence, while scholarly Pictish is as close to the original as anyone has left, but nobody outside the Pitesht even knows about that one.)

And because the Picts are nothing if not sneaky little things, the clans that don't speak Pictish in front of outsiders have another way of referring to Pictish territory, if they use one at all: Ehteconmors (Cunningsburgh inscription: "This is as great") or Ettecuhetts (Lunnasting inscription: "This is as far"). These are actually Brittonic terms from boundary stones.

Time Maps shows the history of the Middle East. What is now Syria has changed hands many times, a contributing factor in the current conflict.

Cinq Francs is a Terramagne store which sells men's and women's clothes to suit the 5-Piece French Wardrobe. Prices range from moderate to high, and quality from good to high. They stock basic items in a Parisian style along with new items for each fashion season in bright colors and bold designs. Items include suits, dresses, blouses, skirts, shirts, trousers, sweaters, scarves, and accessories. Each season they have a featured accessory priced at 5 francs (or the local equivalent) available for a limited time only, and many devoted customers collect these. They often relate to French art, literature, famous people, or other cultural motifs. Staff are trained to assist men and women, and they have several brands of body scanner. Also, all the staff speak French (plus the local vernacular) regardless of what country the store is in -- which means if you speak French, you can shop comfortably in any country that has a Cinq Francs. For this reason, the store is enormously popular with international travelers. The company even hires interns and arranges exchange programs through high schools and colleges to encourage students to choose French as their foreign language. Le Petit Jardin is their children's store.

Mapuche Mail is a corporation similar to Amazon.com. It was launched out of Araucanía, which lies between North Chile, South Chile, and Argentina. What began as a fair trade initiative to give local crafters wider reach has grown into a global sales and shipping business. Later on, it added the teleportation-based VORP Mail service. That one can't ship live or volatile products, but does well with stable items. Customers who learn to speak Mapuche get a discount, 5% at Level 1 up to 25% at Level 5. Mapuche tribe members and other native speakers get 30% off.

Crimes against humanity span a variety of heinous offenses deemed injurious to the species as a whole, not merely the immediate victims. Terramagne is rather more serious about quashing such things, which makes warlords and other nutjobs slightly less inclined to commit them.

Historically, tribal people lived in many different types of homes. In local-America, modern reservation housing tends to be very shabby. This happened in Terramagne-America too, and you can still see examples of it. But many T-American reservations have subsequently upgraded their housing. A big difference is that alternative building styles are much more popular there, because some of those parallel the materials and/or shapes of traditional housing. Other people prefer more European-inspired architecture.

In T-America, Seneca started out as an oil company run by white people. However, the tribal nations in general caught onto renewable energy much sooner than the mainstream did, which allowed them to corner the market in some areas. The Seneca-Cayuga tribe of Oklahoma, a branch of the Seneca people, staged a takeover of Seneca Companies and has been divesting most of the petroleum interests, replacing those with electrical vehicle services, environmental services, waste solutions, remediation and process controls.

Seneca Companies has nine corporate locations throughout the Midwest, Southern, and Mountain regions with a service area covering more than a dozen states. Their goods and services span a variety of infrastructure supports. In T-America, modern Seneca Companies fuel stations still offer gasoline, diesel, and kerosene -- but the tribe slaps a tax on all nonrenewable products to make them more expensive than renewable ones. (The tax goes to their environmental and remediation projects.) They put most of their emphasis on selling biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, along with charging stations for electric cars. They customarily include a convenience store, sometimes a restaurant or other attractions. Products favor healthier options than typical at a gas station, with a particular emphasis on tribally owned and operated ones, such as the Dézi cereals.

Word-cracking is an Irish game of knowledge and literacy that involves puns, metaphors, allusions, and other techniques to create colorful phrases. What makes it a puzzle is that experts sometimes stack the encoding several layers deep and/or codeswitch across different languages. It becomes a game when two people each try to create phrases that the other cannot decode. This requires a great deal of linguistic skill, and the playful aspect appeals to children who might not bother to exert themselves otherwise. Here is a description of the better-known Norse kennings.
Tags: activism, cyberfunded creativity, ethnic studies, family skills, fantasy, fishbowl, history, linguistics, poem, poetry, reading, weblit, writing
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