Alsoomse "Soo" Grayeyes -- She has tinted skin, dark gray eyes, and long wavy hair of coffee brown. She insists that her nickname is "Soo" and throws a fit if anyone misspells it "Sue" on the grounds that those are two unrelated names even though they sound the same. Her heritage includes Cree, Chippewa, and British. She speaks English, Chippewa, Oji-Cree, and Plains Cree. Soo earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Linguistics with a Heritage Languages Concentration and a minor in Tribal Family Dynamics from Stone Child College. She went on to earn a master's degree in Linguistics and a graduate minor in Sociology with the Inequality and Social Justice option from the University of Montana in Missoula. Soo was a teaching assistant at the university, hoping to become a professor, when she found out she was pregnant. Shortly before the birth, her boyfriend agreed to marry her -- but not long after the baby came, he bailed on them. Exasperated, Soo quit her job and came back to Rocky Boy's Reservation with her new daughter Nuttah. They moved in with Soo's brother Many Tongues. Soo hopes she will be able to get a job at Stone Child College later on, but for now she wants to focus on raising Nuttah.
Qualities: Expert (+4) Linguist, Good (+2) Âniskô-kiskinwahamâkêwin, Good (+2) Chippewa-Cree Culture, Good (+2) Tribal Family Dynamics
Âniskô-kiskinwahamâkêwin means passing on teachings.
Poor (-2) Impatient
(T-Stone Child College offers considerably more programs than its local version, including a bachelor's degree in Linguistics.)
Bachelor of Arts Linguistics Major at T-Stone Child College
Major: 40 credits, General Education: 40 Credits
GENERAL EDUCATION 40 CREDITS
ART 110: Art Appreciation (3 credits)
MUS 110: Music Appreciation (3 credits)
BIOS 101: General Biology with Lab (4 credits)
CAPP 120: Intro to Computers (3 credits)
WRIT 101: College Writing I (3 credits)
WRIT 201: College Writing II (3 credits)
LIT 115: Intro to Literature (3 credits)
NAS 262: Contemporary Issues in American Indian Life (3 credits)
NAS 101: History of Indians in U.S. (3 credits)
PHYS 120: Foundations of Physical Science (4 credits)
PSYX 100: Intro to Psychology (3 credits)
COMX 111: Intro to Public Speaking (3 credits)
M 145 Mathematics for Liberal Arts (4 credits)
42 total credits
Majors take all four courses (10 credits).
LING 101 Introduction to Linguistics 3
LING 110 Great Linguistic Texts 1
LING 240 Bilingualism 3
LING 375X Linguistic Ecology and Language Endangerment 3
Aspects of Linguistics
Majors choose 9 credits.
LING 470 Linguistic Analysis 3
LING 472 Syntax 3
LING 490 Writing Systems 3
Majors choose 16 credits.
For the Concentration, take LING 484 and 13 more credits from this section.
NASX 115: Chippewa Language I (3 credits)
NASX 120: Oji-Cree I (3 credits) (T-American)
NASX 215: Chippewa Writing I (3 credits) (T-American)
NASX 234: Language Nests (3 credits) (T-American)
NASX 239: Working with Elders in Language Preservation (3 credits) (T-American)
LING 484: Native American Languages and Linguistics (3 credits) (T-American)
* Students already proficient in one or more of the above languages may test out prerequisites to take mroe advanced classes. If you do not wish to take more classes in your heritage language(s), you may speak to your academic advisor about tutoring or other opportunities to earn credits. These pursuits will count toward Feather Roll status.
(Soo did her internship at Stone Child College, tutoring people in Cree since she was already fluent in it.)
Major: Choose 2 credits of independent study and/or research AND a capstone course.
LING 298 Internship in Linguistics 1-6
LING 490 Capstone in Linguistics 3
Tribal Family Dynamics Minor at Stone Child College
Minor: 28 credits
PROFESSIONAL CORE (12 credits)
EDEC 100: Introduction to Early Childhood (3 credits)
NAS 110: Tribal Family Dynamics (T-American) (2 credits)
SOCI 115: Native American Children and Families (3 credits)
HS 185: Parent Institute Training (variable credits)
PSYX 240: Lifespan Development (3 credits)
Minor: Choose 3 credits in health and wellness.
HPE 121: Ancient Foodways (2 credits) (T-American)
Minor: Choose 3 credits in heritage languages.*
NASX 230: Language Preservation Activism (3 credits) (T-American)
* Students already proficient in one of the above languages may test out of this requirement. However, fluent speakers are strongly encouraged to further their mastery and may take more advanced classes. If you do not wish to take more classes, you may speak to your academic advisor about tutoring or other opportunities to earn credits. These pursuits will count toward Feather Roll status. Alternatively, you may make up the credits in Native American studies.
Minor: Choose 3 credits in Native American studies.
NAS 289: Strong Medicine - Superpowers in First Nations (3 credits) (T-American)
* Students already proficient in all of their favored topics may test out of this requirement. However, cultural experts are strongly encouraged to further their mastery and may take more advanced classes. If you do not wish to take more classes, you may speak to your academic advisor about tutoring or other opportunities to earn credits. These pursuits will count toward Feather Roll status. Alternatively, you may make up the credits in Special Topics or Advanced Special Topics.
Minor: Choose 3 credits in life topics.
EDU 220: Human Growth & Child Development (3 credits)
(Soo took HS 180: Intergenerational Issues.)
Minor: Choose 3 credits in Special Topics.
HS 180: Special Topics in Human Services and Native Community Issues (variable credits)
(Soo did her research project on family maintenance skills in unbroken families.)
Minor: Choose 1 credit of independent study or research.
HS 295: Research in Human Studies Capstone (1 credit)
TOTAL CREDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR MINOR: 28 CREDITS
Graduate Master of Arts in Linguistics at the University of Montana in Missoula
The Linguistics Program at the University of Montana awards a 36-credit-hour Master of Arts degree with thesis and non-thesis options. Students are trained in theoretical and descriptive linguistics and have opportunities to engage in independent research and fieldwork. The small size of the Program allows for a great deal of individualized attention. Recent graduates have been admitted to prestigious Ph.D. programs and have also gone on to teaching and other careers.
LING 571 - Phonetics and Phonology. 3 Credits.
Offered autumn. A study of phonetic and phonological systems from as many as 20 languages, most of them non-Indo-European; training in how to do linguistic analysis as well as linguistic theory. This course co-convenes with LING 471. Graduate students taking LING 571 will complete additional requirements and their work will be of a more advanced nature. Level: Graduate
LING 572 - Syntax. 3 Credits.
Offered autumn. Prereq., LING 470 or equivalent. An investigation of human language sentence?formation systems, construed as functions (combinatorial computations) mapping utterances (physical sounds) to propositions (mental meanings). Emphasis on abstracting away from observable cross-linguistic data in favor of underlying formal (i.e., computational) structures. This course is co-convened with LING 472. Level: Graduate
LING 573 - Language and Culture. 3 Credits.
Offered spring. Technical study of the relationships between grammatical categories and world view. This course co-convenes with LING 473. Graduate students will complete additional requirements and their work will be of a more advanced nature. Level: Graduate
LING 574 - Historical Linguistics. 3 Credits.
Offered spring even-numbered years. An introduction to the study of language change over time. Topics include: methods for studying language change (the comparative method and internal reconstruction); types of language change (sound change, borrowing, analogical change, lexical, syntactic, and semantic change); and explanations for language change. The principles of historical reconstruction and comparative method in the analysis of linguistic variation and change. This course co-convenes with LING 474. Graduate students will complete additional requirements and their work will be of a more advanced nature. Level: Graduate
LING 575 - Linguistic Field Methods. 3 Credits.
Offered spring odd-numbered years. Writing up linguistic data; developing techniques for eliciting linguistic data by working with a native speaker of a less commonly taught language. This courses co-convenes with LING 475. Graduate students will complete additional requirements and their work will be of a more advanced nature. Level: Graduate
LING 584 - Native American Indigenous Languages and Linguistics. 3 Credits.
Offered autumn odd-numbered years. Description and analysis of grammatical features of Indigenous languages of North America. This course co-convenes with LING 484. Graduate students will complete additional requirements and their work will be of a more advanced nature. Level: Graduate
LING 589 - Morphology. 3 Credits.
Offered spring. A survey of the morphological features of several unrelated languages to provide the student with a broad overview of how languages compare and contrast. This course co-convenes with LING 489. Graduate students taking LING 589 will complete additional requirements and their work will be of a more advanced nature. Level: Graduate
LING 595 - Special Topics. 1-9 Credits. (Linguistic Colonialism and Turtle Island)
(R?9) Offered intermittently. Experimental offerings of visiting professors, experimental offerings of new courses, or one-time offerings of current topics. Level: Graduate
Soo researched the formation of Rocky Boy's Reservation from Chippewa and Cree tribes.
LING 596 - Independent Study. 1-3 Credits.
(R-6) Offered intermittently. Course material appropriate to the needs and objectives of the individual student. Level: Graduate
Soo did her internship with a program serving tribal-descended city residents in Missoula.
LING 598 - Internship. 1-6 Credits.
(R-6) Offered intermittently. Extended classroom experience which provides practical application of classroom learning during placements off campus. Level: Graduate
For this class, Soo wrote about the Algonquian language family.
LING 599 - Professional Paper. 1-6 Credits.
(R-6) Offered intermittently. Preparation of a professional paper appropriate to the needs and objectives of the individual student. Level: Graduate
In her thesis, Soo analyzed the linguistic features of Rocky Boy's Reservation and how it is slowly developing its own dialect from Chippewa and Cree roots.
LING 699 - Thesis. 1-6 Credits.
(R-6) Offered autumn and spring. Preparation of a thesis or manuscript based on research for presentation and/or publication. Level: Graduate
Minor - Sociology (Graduate)
College of Humanities & Sciences
Degree Specific Credits: 21
Complete all of the following courses:
SOCI 101S Introduction to Sociology 3
SOCI 318 Sociological Research Methods 3
SOCI 455 Classical Sociological Theory 3
Total Hours 9
General Sociology Electives
Complete four of the following courses: 12
SOCI 220S Race, Gender & Class
SOCI 260S Introduction to Juvenile Delinquency
SOCI 312 Criminal Adjudication
SOCI 346 Rural Sociology
SOCI 443 Sociology of Poverty
SOCI 446 Prost & Human Trafficking
The Inequality and Social Justice option (ISJ) investigates the mechanisms that produce and ameliorate disparities across ascribed groups. This option calls on students and faculty to examine the causes and consequences of inequalities based on class, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, age, and sexual orientation. Attention is given to local, national, and global sites of inequality, including work and labor markets, financial institutions, education, health, religion, and families. In addition to the graduate core, students in the Inequality and Social Justice option must take two additional classes:
• Seminar in Inequality and Social Justice (545)
• Three credits in any 500 level course approved by ISJ committee (need not be in Sociology)
SOCI 530 - Criminological Theory. 3 Credits.
Offered autumn. Consent of instr. Advanced study of the major theories of crime and criminality; includes the concepts, propositions, and causal logic, together with relevant research findings. Level: Graduate
SOCI 545 - Sem in Inequality & Soc Justic. 3 Credits.
Offered spring. Graduate student in Sociology or consent of instr. Advanced study of variable topics in inequality and social justice held in a small group setting that maximizes opportunities for graduate student research, discussion, and writing. Level: Graduate
Nuttah Grayeyes -- She has tinted skin, black eyes, a short fuzz of unruly dark brown hair. She is the daughter of Soo and a boyfriend who dumped both of them shortly after the baby's birth. Nuttah is ahead of the curve on language, but slower to learn physical skills.
Qualities: Good (+2) Linguistic Intelligence
Poor (-2) Kinesthetic Intelligence
* * *
A description of Many Tongues' roundhouse appears in "An Inner Strength."
Stone Child College is officially listed in Box Elder, but the map shows it closer to Boneau to the east of Box Elder.
The new Stone Child College Campus is located at the Bonneauville community which is seven (7) miles east of Box Elder, Montana. Kennewash Hall was completed in 2003 and named at the summer 2003 dedication in honor of Chief Kennewash, an original tribal member and early supporter of education who helped build the first school in Rocky Boy. The Kennewash Hall houses eleven classrooms, ten faculty offices, and the offices of Foundations & Research Department, The Learning Center, Student Support Services, Dean of Academics, and other administrative staff. All classrooms are equipped with computers tied into the college's network, and all classrooms have Internet access.
Read about Native American language families.
In L-America, the Chippewa Cree Tribe is working to save their language(s).
Blair Her Road Goes Both Ways speaks Plains Cree, which she learned as an adult; her parents speak a different dialect. Many Tongues speaks A'ananin (Gros Ventre), Dakota (Sioux), English, French, Lipan Apache, Nakoda (Assiniboine), Nēhiyawēwin ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ or Plains Cree, Ojibwemowin (Chippewa or Ojibwa), Oji-Cree (another dialect of Ojibwa), Plains Indian Sign, Salish, and Siksika (Blackfeet); he is currently struggling to learn Diné (Navajo). Sounding Shell speaks Oji-Cree. Because Rocky Boy's Reservation includes people of Chippewa and Cree descent, several languages are in play and influencing each other.
The Severn Ojibwa or the Oji-Cree language (ᐊᓂᐦᔑᓂᓃᒧᐏᐣ, Anishininiimowin; Unpointed: ᐊᓂᔑᓂᓂᒧᐏᐣ) belongs to several Oji-Cree communities in Canada. Ojibwa belongs to the Algonquian language family, which is part of the larger Algic language family. Rocky Boy's linguistic heritage also combines Chippewa and Cree elements.
Chippewa (Ojibwemowin) is an Algonquian language with about 7,000 people spread across Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and Wisconsin. It belongs to the Ojibwe dialect continuum called Anishinaabemowin. Like other dialects of Anishinaabemowin, Chippewa's closest relative is Potawatomi.
Cree (ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ / Nēhiyawēwin) is an Algonquian language with over 120,000 people in Canada. Western Cree has around 53,000 speakers in America and Canada. Dialects include Woods Cree (Nīhithawīwin), Plains Cree (ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ / Nēhiyawēwin) and Western Swampy Cree (Nēhinawēwin).
I couldn't find a detailed pronoun analysis for Plains Cree, but found one for Eastern Cree which is very similar. Pronouns are inflected for gender, but the division is animate/inanimate not masculine/feminine/neuter.
Pronouns like ᐊᐃᐦ aih are used when a speaker cannot think of a particular noun. They act as placeholders for that noun. They are inflected, like other pronouns, indicating that the speaker is aware of the gender (animate or inanimate), number (singular or plural) and obviation status of the missing noun.
Personal emphatic pronouns
ᒌ chii - you
ᓃ nii - me
ᒌᐧᐋᐤ chiiwaau - you all
ᒌᔮᓅ chiiyaanuu - we (you, me and possibly others)
ᓃᔮᓐ niiyaan - we (but not you)
ᐧᐄ wii - him/her
ᐧᐄᐧᐋᐤ wiiwaau - them
ᐧᐄ wii (uhtaawiih) - him/her/the
Cree has two words that correspond to English ‘we’: ᒌᔮᓅ chiiyaanuu is used when I am talking about you, me and possibly others. ᓃᔮᓐ niiyaan is used when I am talking about us, but not you. ᒌᔮᓅ chiiyaanuu and ᓂᔮᓐ niyaan have sometimes been called the ‘we inclusive (of you)’ and the ‘we exclusive (of you)’. From a Cree perspective, because both chiiwaau and ᒌᔮᓅ chiiyaanuu contain ᒌ chii ‘you’, ᒌᔮᓅ chiiyaanuu is a ‘you inclusive (of me)’, used when you count me in, while ᒌᐧᐋᐤ chiiwaau is a ‘you exclusive (of me)’, used when you do not count me in.
Personal inclusive pronouns:
ᒉᔥᑕᒌ cheshtachii you too
ᓀᔥᑕᓃ neshtanii me too
ᒉᔥᑕᒌᐧᐋᐤ cheshtachiiwaau you all too
ᒉᔥᑕᒌᔮᓅ cheshtachiiyaanuu you and me too
ᓀᔥᑕᓃᔮᓐ neshtaniiyaan we too (but not you)
ᐧᐁᔥᑕᐧᐄ weshtawii him/her too
ᐧᐁᔥᑕᐧᐄᐧᐋᐤ weshtawiiwaau them too
ᐧᐁᔥᑕᐧᐄ (ᐅᐦᑖᐧᐄᐦ) weshtawii (uhtaawiih) his/her (father) too