Make durable labels in Braille (or another method) to identify the name of the stitch pattern and type of yarn. You may also want to use ColorAdd or Feelipa symbols to indicate its color. Fasten these to each swatch. If you want more details, such as where to find the pattern for the stitch in your handbooks or where to buy more of the yarn, make a separate index with more space to write on than the labels have.
Here are some links about making and using swatches:
There are various ways to store swatches and organize notes about what you did.
One method I did not find online but have seen in person is to fasten the corners with a hinged snap-ring. This makes something like a rolodex that you can flip through. If you use three snap-rings, you basically have a book of swatches.
There are printable pages for knitting journals and other records. These would need to be translated into a more accessible format with Braille, raised lines, etc. but it's doable with the right equipment or assistance.
Note that if you are a teacher trying to convince someone to use the Braille, ColorAdd, Feelipa, or other blind notation that they are learning, ask if they have hobbies. Many hobbies benefit from recordkeeping, and a student will be more motivated to practice a skill if it gains them something they want.
Some people just never use their swatches for reference, considering them a waste of time and yarn useful only to ensure proper sizing and behavior for the "real" project. Whatever. Rather than throw them out, you can either unravel and reuse the yarn, or turn the swatches into something else: