Again, I am strongly reminded of Traipah. Traipah does have a global government, but the global government mostly serves as an arbiter of disputes, occasionally deporting troublesome offworlders back to their planet of origin. Most governing happens on the local level. Most of the economy is local, too; I think "city states" is a good term for it, though I hadn't thought of it that way before. But yeah, there are no countries or counties on Traipah, just cities, towns, etc. Cities trade with one another when they need to.
However, the global government of Traipah is not the only global organization. The Unity Order is a major one, since it works with other larger Orders like The Order of Kusahnia, as well as with smaller Orders, making sure everyone on Traipah gets a good education. They still focus a lot on local wants and needs, but the curriculum is often basically the same. Unity Schools, as they're called, teach Values above all else; compassion, good citizenship, critical thinking, etc. Traipahni schools teach children HOW to think, not WHAT to think. All Knowledge based classes (history, maths, science, etc) are taught with the goal of getting kids interested in the subjects, and thus *wanting* to learn. History classes, among others, are discussion based rather than facts based. I think even Maths classes are, to some degree; after all, there are facts about math that are interesting and powerful at teaching (things like "multiplication is repeated addition; division is repeated subtraction") that often get missed in Western schools.
There are social expectations that restrict what global organizations can do. The rich and/or the powerful are expected to use their power to improve society, to make survival for the whole culture easier. Greed is seen as a form of mental illness. The rich are expected to pull their significant weight in constructive ways, or else the people get really pissy. It's a world full of aspies, basically, with a cultural worship of knowledge and wisdom, a powerful cultural dislike of ignorance, and a powerful cultural hatred of stupidity. Nobody there gets away with the kind of shit you see rich people on Earth doing. At least, not for long. A group like Wikileaks would be hailed as global heroes on Traipah.
Everyone is expected to pitch in, if they can, and there are many programs and organizations dedicated to making sure everyone is at least trying to contribute. It helps that the people of Traipah are fanatical in their love of art, music, writing, and anything else that makes the world a more beautiful place and/or celebrates the world's beauty.
It also helps that the crappy, menial jobs and the dangerous jobs tend to be given over to machines/robots whenever possible. Most people who work for the sanitation Guilds are engineers and repair-persons.
Oh yeah, the government also collects taxes and uses those to pay for free health care and free secondary and tertiary education. Healthy, happy workers are productive workers.